ORP and Oxidation:
Buy Seroquel online without prescription, By Kent Williams, Professional Pool Operators of America
Oxidation/reduction potential... We’ve all heard the term, but what does it really mean, buy Seroquel from mexico. We’ll see that it is, Canada, mexico, india, essentially, a relative measure of the desired “work value” of our pool sanitizer and a pretty darn’ good one at that. But first, 0.4mg, 0.5mg, 1mg, 2.5mg, let’s dissect the term itself.
“Oxidation” is pretty clear, Buy Seroquel online no prescription
, so is “potential”, but what’s that other word, reduction, Baltimore, Maryland. Milwaukee, Wisconsin
. It’s not very important to us, El Paso, Texas. Washington, D.C. Seattle, Washington
, actually -- having to do with electron exchange and implying a chemical process pretty much the opposite of oxidation. The name of the technology wouldn’t be complete without the R, so we’ll use it to and remain correct, buy Seroquel online without prescription
. (The phrase “redox potential” is also used, still embodying both reactions in the name.)
One can simply imagine the ORP of a solution to be the measurable “oxidation potential” or the potential within an active solution to do chemical “work”, Indianapolis, Indiana, San Francisco, California
We talk a lot about oxidation in the pool business. Chicago, Illinois. Houston, Texas, ‘Seems that, while sanitation comes along for the ride, it’s oxidation that we really have to work for, Seroquel pharmacy. We frequently relate oxidation to burning, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Las Vegas, Nevada, however biological/organic oxidation is actually not combustion at all, with the source of oxygen being water, not the molecular gas, Jacksonville, Florida, Columbus, Ohio. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, Biological oxidation, found in animal digestion, is a stepwise reaction which releases energy in manageable amounts, consuming and/or converting organic material into proteins and sugars and other useful stuff. In a pool, Buy Seroquel online cod, the goal is to render organic contaminants invisible and non-offensive, with the primary resultant being carbon dioxide. One of the most complicated areas of chemistry, Seroquel from canadian pharmacy, oxidation in water produced by a halogen (chlorine, Austin, Texas, Memphis, Tennessee, bromine and others) results in the clear and sanitary water we want; however, conditions can exist which encourage the formation of ineffective, sometimes offensive halide compounds as well as other, 650mg, 800mg, 875mg, 900mg, even less desirable, Purchase Seroquel online no prescription, “products of incomplete oxidation” such as trihalo-methanes - mentioned elsewhere in this article. The object, then, where can i buy Seroquel online, is to optimize the use and the control of the chlorine or bromine, Online buy Seroquel without a prescription, the ozone, peroxide, chlorine dioxide, where can i order Seroquel without prescription, monopersulfate or whatever it is we manage to add to the water for those important oxidation duties. Fort Worth, Texas. Denver, Colorado, And this is done by measuring the quality of the process, not the quantity. Nothing beats ORP for this job, buy Seroquel online without prescription.
ORP is measured in pool water using a sensitive voltmeter and a platinum electrode, buy no prescription Seroquel online. The voltage across the pure platinum tip and a potassium chloride/silver chloride reference cell is measured in millivolts (thousandths of a volt) and, Where can i find Seroquel online, miraculously, can be directly related to efficacy, or “work value” of any sanitizing/oxidizing product present in the water, buy Seroquel from canada. Unstressed, Købe Seroquel online, αγοράζουν online Seroquel, un-treated water reads a background potential of a few hundred millivolts (mV.), while the generally accepted (German DIN-Standard originated) range for effective sanitation (with chlorine or bromine, typically) is 650 to about 850 mV, buy generic Seroquel. Values much below 650 mV. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, become unsafe, whether in pools or in drinking water preparation. Buy Seroquel no prescription, Oxidation suffers proportionately as ORP drops below that magical 650, and turbid water can show up right on cue.
A well-known study performed by Dr, japan, craiglist, ebay, hcl. Jim Brown of the Oregon State Health Department about fifteen years ago made it crystal clear that ORP is the qualitative measure of choice for sanitarians or operators evaluating the safety of pool water and the efficacy of the sanitizer. 400mg, 450mg, 500mg, 625mg, In this remarkable study, thirty public spas were examined for all normal pool variables, plate count (bacteria density) and, Seroquel for sale, finally, 125mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg, ORP. Extremes showed up in pH values from 5.7 through 8.3, combined chlorine from 1.4 to 34 ppm, free chlorine from 0 to 30 ppm, cyanuric acid (what’s it doing in a spa??) from 0 to 1,300 ppm, plate counts from 0 through 15,000, and even Pseudomonas up to 12,400, buy Seroquel online without prescription. The only correlation that stood up throughout the study was the relationship between ORP and the presence of pathogens. Virtually no plate count existed in the spas where ORP values were found to be above about 630 millivolts, australia, uk, us, usa, while lower values, Order Seroquel no prescription, no matter the free-chlorine residuals present, all had dangerous or near-dangerous levels of pathogenic life (bugs!).
Among the unsafe pools in the study, purchase Seroquel online, chlorine residuals bore no resemblance to the plate-count values. Buy Seroquel without prescription, Even when the free chlorine was as high as 4 ppm, a significant plate count existed because the ORP in that spa was 537 mV. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, The pH was 6.9, so why was the ORP so low in that spa’s water. Excessive cyanuric acid was the culprit, comprar en línea Seroquel, comprar Seroquel baratos, as was the case in all but two of the thirteen spas exhibiting ORP levels at or below 630 mV. El Paso, Texas. Washington, D.C. Seattle, Washington, No matter the reason for low ORP, however low sanitizer, CYA, where can i buy cheapest Seroquel online, high pH, 125mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg, chloramines you can count on unsafe water and eventual turbidity.
The chart above, developed by Uniloc and Stranco in the early 1970s, buy cheap Seroquel, helps you see the relationship between free chlorine at various pH levels and the resultant ORP. Where can i buy Seroquel online, Choose one curve, representing a “free chlorine” value you want or may have measured using the DPD method. You will see the effect pH has on that one value of chlorine, buy Seroquel online without prescription. HOCl becomes H+ and OCl- as pH rises, japan, craiglist, ebay, hcl, and a predictable drop in ORP is the result. Fort Worth, Texas. Denver, Colorado, One-half part per million of un-stabilized “free chlorine” can produce over 780 mV. at pH 7, dropping to just over 650 mV at pH 8, buy Seroquel from canada. The example shown is the ORP result of one ppm at pH 7.4, Buy Seroquel online cod, yielding 810 mV. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, (This ORP result is under ideal conditions with the one ppm all “free” and no CYA or other detractors!)
Almost all modern automated pool controllers operate on the principle of ORP measurement and control. It has proven to be reliable, repeatable and affordable, köpa Seroquel online, Osta Seroquel online, Jotta Seroquel verkossa. Many states are including ORP thresholds in their new codes, Indianapolis, Indiana, San Francisco, California, and others will doubtless follow as redox becomes the World standard.
Next we should examine ORP further, looking into important issues relating to automation with ppm readouts, buy Seroquel without prescription, measurement in the presence of cyanuric acid, Canada, mexico, india, compensations and concerns when measuring and controlling bromine, and so forth. Contributors to this discussion are welcome; give PPOA a call or check in at ppoa.org, Jacksonville, Florida, Columbus, Ohio.
In the discussion of ORP so far, we see the critical importance of oxidation in pool water and the fact that the potential to oxidize expressed as ORP in millivolts is the only reliable measure of the quality – the work value” – of the chlorine or bromine in the water, buy Seroquel online without prescription. ORP values can be used to predict sanitation efficacy, Purchase Seroquel online, organic consumption (water clarity) and even such things as the liklihood of inactivation of e-coli and that un-predictable, extremely tough parasite called cryptosporidium.
ORP is the medium of control for industrial, Seroquel from canadian pharmacy, medical, Where can i find Seroquel online, water, wastewater, and swimming-pool oxidants, farmacia Seroquel baratos, Seroquel online kaufen. That little platinum electrode is found in more places than you’d dream, 0.4mg, 0.5mg, 1mg, 2.5mg, serving the operators as a reliable measure of what the chemical is doing not necessarily the chemical itself. In our swimming pools, the controller doesn’t have any idea how much chlorine you have in the water, where can i order Seroquel without prescription, indeed it doesn’t even know it is chlorine you are using. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, What that smart machine does know, however, is what it is that whatever you’re using is doing in the water -- the quality or the resultant of the active compound doing the work. New York. Los Angeles, California, It is simply called qualitative control.
We’re lucky that there’s only one chemical doing this oxidizing work in a pool. If there were more than one variable whose change would cause a significant ORP-reading shift on the face of your controller, 5mg, 50mg, 75mg, 100mg, there would be no way to control, Seroquel price, by instrumentation anyway, the active chemical product you’re interested in. Indeed, kjøpe Seroquel online, bestill Seroquel online, there would be no automation industry at all. But since chlorine (if that’s the sanitizer in use), is the only changeable thing in the water that makes the needle move, or the digits change, it is fully controllable, buy Seroquel online without prescription. Boston, Massachusetts. Charlotte, Carolina, “If you can read it and make it change, you can control it,” is an old adage of the instrumentation profession, Seroquel in cats, dogs, children. And, Seroquel coupon, if what you’re really reading is a measure of the work done or about to be done, that’s better yet.
ORP ~ Page 3
“About to be done”, rx free Seroquel. Yes. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, ORP has another little-known quality about which pool operators should be familiar. Online buy Seroquel without a prescription, There exists a lead time, where ORP reacts ahead of the resultant residual. In a quiescent pool (everything running, buy cheap Seroquel no rx, but no swimmer load) the ORP and the residual quantity should “agree”. That is, the published interrelationship between the pH value, the ORP level and the ppm required to achieve that ORP should be right on. (We use this interrelationship to set up, or “standardize” our machines, right?) However, when the swim team jumps in or, worse, the football team arrives at the pool after the sweaty game, all bets are off. The potential to oxidize drops immediately as oxidant needs are sensed and oxidation begins, buy Seroquel online without prescription. But the DPD test kit tells us that the residual, that amount of un-used, ready-to-go chlorine in the water, has yet to change. Consumption has barely begun, but the ORP shows a sharp drop. You can see the value of this phenomenon, where actual “demand conditions” could be analyzed. However, don’t “standardize” your machine during those high-demand times of the day. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, You’ll be mis-calibrating, not making things more accurate.
What about the effect on ORP of potassium monopersulfate, or ozone, or peroxide. These “oxy” products actually don’t elevate the ORP much, so can be ignored. Ozone is a powerful elevator of ORP, however it is short-lived and usually introduced after the location of our ORP probe in the water on the way back to the pool and is primarily used as a supplement, not a control parameter. Peroxide does elevate ORP too, and is sometimes used instead of chlorine. While down in the realm of 500 mV or so, ORP control can nicely control hydrogen peroxide all by itself, buy Seroquel online without prescription.
While we brag about ORP and the marvelous qualitative nature of its control, there is one final kicker that can monkey up the whole picture. That’s the all-too-common practice of “lying to the machine”. Again relating to the screw-turning procedure called standardization, let’s all understand something here the only time that the ORP value is honest is when some STANDARD is used to establish the starting point. If you tweek your standardize pot or calibration screw to your liking, you quite likely are not basing the setting on anything “standard” at all. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, If your electrode is immersed in normal, un-stabilized pool water, and you’re using a DPD kit for “free” chlorine values, you’re probably going to be close. Better yet might be an ORP standard signal from a calibrator, or calibrated “buffer solution”, into which you immerse your electrode –but neither of these is commonly available. We have to count on our own judgement regarding the accuracy of our starting point.
If cyanuric acid is in the water, you can guarantee the need to lie to the instrument, as CYA creates radical drops in ORP for a given quantity of chlorine. Automation on a stabilized pool is relegated to what we call “relative control”; that is, the only thing we can count on is if we turn the knob clockwise, we’ll get more, if we turn it counter-clockwise, we’ll get less. It the instrument calculates ppm, it’s guaranteed to be wrong in the presence of CYA, buy Seroquel online without prescription. In PPOA’s PumpRoom Press or on the website www.ppoa.org you’ll see this subject wrung out in a lengthy and detailed fashion. Keep this in mind: any water containing 70 ppm CYA or more is un-automatable that is, increases in residual will not produce a rise in ORP.
The last concern in the ORP story is related to bromine and bromine-compounds used to produce HOBr in your pool. We know that it takes about 2.2 times the bromine residual to match a given amount of chlorine in work value even in test kit readings so we should expect the active bromine in the water may result in somewhat less ORP than similar quantities of chlorine. Buy Seroquel online without prescription, As pH is very much less influential on HOBr (less OBr- Ion), the chlorine nomograph that familiar family of curves developed by STRANCO and discussed above doesn’t apply. This industry hasn’t developed a new nomograph for bromine, so we’re whistlin’ in the wind for accurate relationships between real ORP and bromine residuals. When they’re developed, PPOA will be among the first to know...
For those states of the union (their respective health departments, that is) now legislating minimum ORP values, a noble endeavor indeed, they are going to have one tough time insuring compliance. The World-standard 650 mV. is pretty easy to achieve, even with stabilized chlorine or bromine, but 750 mV., now showing up in some western health codes, is doggone difficult to manage with bromine and near impossible with cyanuric stabilization. Environmental health specialists will have to carry an ORP standard to determine if the water, manually treated or the product of a controller, is anywhere near the value assumed or set by the operator.
Check out what’s current on www.PPOA.org or e-mail Kentw@ppoa.org
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